HISTORY OF BUENOS AIRES
Buenos Aires was founded in 1536 and was called Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre, in a territory that was inhabited by an indigenous group called querandíes, which were eventually exterminated.
In the beginning, it was a dependent government of the Viceroyalty of Peru, far from any commercial center since the Spaniards preferred the Pacific ports; therefore, the locals began to live by trading, especially with Brazil, commercializing the leathers of the large number of cattle that roamed the pampas.
Buenos Aires became famous because of the battle where people, led by the governor Jose de Garro, succeeded in expelling the Portuguese invasion. At the same time, the Argentine leather industry began to be recognized. These details marked the character of Buenos Aires, since it became a city that began to emerge on its own merits, without names or aristocracy, unlike the cities of other countries.
It later became Viceroyalty in 1776, primarily as an attempt to stop the contraband and foreign advance in the territory from the Atlantic. At that time, in Buenos Aires free trade was allowed and goods could enter and connect with other ports without permits from the royal authorities. It did not have dependence from Lima and received a large amount of immigrants especially French and Italian.
Also, the city was invaded by several pirates, but they were expelled. However, interest in Buenos Aires remained and these attacks plus the liberal ideas of Napoleon's invasion of Spain permitted independent groups that were formed and initiated the Revolution of May in 1810 and the freedom of Argentina.
Since then, Buenos Aires has developed as one of the most important cities in South America, being the first that had a subway system, the subway opened in 1913. It is a city with a personality formed by the arrival of European immigrants and a large quality of museums, theaters and cultural centers. Its buildings also show the cultural mix, with all kinds of architecture and colorful colonial houses that may be seen in the neighborhood of La Boca.
The city celebrated its centennial in 1900 and its Bicentennial in 2010, with the reopening of the Teatro Colon.
Because of its location, Buenos Aires has good climate, low seismicity and a permanent source of fresh water from Rio de la Plata.